In order to increase the reach of a Micro Finance Institution, it must charge higher interest rates and incur higher costs for disbursing loans. To make up for these costs, MFIs use innovative lending practices and charge market-based interest rates. These interest rates cover the costs of screening, monitoring, and enforcing the loans. The nominal interest rates of an MFI range from thirty to sixty percent. In some cases, MFIs offer micro pensions to clients.
While a self-sustainability model focuses on the formal financial system, the ultimate success of an MFI is its profitability. In the short term, donations can cover startup costs and help fund experiments to reduce costs. But in the long run, the revenue from clients will cover costs. However, while OSS is measured as a percentage, a high percentage indicates that an MFI is financially self-sufficient. The same goes for ROA, which is a traditional measure of profitability.
Despite the fact that the majority of the population of the developing world lives in poverty, the financial services provided by microfinance institutions are still not accessible to the poorest people in Nigeria. Hence, the feasibility of a microfinance institution should be analyzed with due care. As a microfinance institution, it should be financially viable and have sufficient loan-able funds to provide loans to entrepreneurs and small businesses. It should also not require collateral as collateral.
Besides this, MFIs must be backed by investors to avoid a major challenge: overborrowing. The average size of microfinance loans has increased, according to data from the CRIF High Mark. Many borrowers have attempted to borrow from more than one lender. A lack of backing from an anchor investor can stymie the MFI from achieving its goal of financial inclusion. However, despite the growing importance of these institutions, the risks of overborrowing remain an ever-present risk.
MFIs that are financially self-sufficient also have better outreach. While financial sustainability is a desirable attribute for any MFI, most research agrees that outreach and financial self-sufficiency should be considered as a tradeoff. In order to sustain themselves, MFIs must ensure that their operating costs and interest rates are low. And by focusing on these factors, MFIs can become more profitable and effective. These benefits are well worth the effort.
MFIs must also report financial data on borrowers. The MIX Market, a web-based platform, compiles information on MFIs and borrowers. The data provided on MIX Market is standardized in accordance with the Microfinance Industry Reporting Standards. If an MFI fails to report financial information, then it is not likely to be a Micro Finance Institution. But it can still provide important data to investors.
In order to establish a Micro Finance Institution in India, the applicant firm must be registered under the Companies Act of 1956. The company must have a Net Owned Fund (NOF) of Rs 5 crore or more. A Micro Finance Institution cannot provide loans for more than Rs 50 thousand. To qualify, an institution must have at least eighty percent of its NOF in qualifying assets. Whether a microfinance company is registered under the Companies Act 2013 or not depends on the promoters’ qualifications.